CVSS v4.0 is Public: What do you need to know about it?

The Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) serves as a standard for assessing the severity of computer system security vulnerabilities. Its latest iteration, CVSS version 4.0, was originally shown in a public preview on June 8, 2023, at the 35th Annual FIRST Conference in Montreal, and was officially launched in General Availability (GA) on November 1st, 2023. With its release come numerous changes that seek to improve upon shortcomings from the previous edition CVSS v3.1. CVSS v4.0’s updates to the vulnerability scoring system include new nomenclature to reflect comprehensive scoring, a streamlined approach to threat metrics, refined user interaction details, and the retirement of the Scope metric for clearer impact assessments. Additionally, it offers cross-sector guidance and the ability to support multiple scores for varied industry challenges. These enhancements aim to improve the precision, clarity, and applicability of the CVSS framework.

The figure above from Qualys highlights the differences between CVSS v3.1 vs CVSS v4.0

What’s Changed in CVSS v4.0?

Nomenclature Adjustment for Clearer Metric Representation

CVSS v4.0 addresses the misconception that the overall CVSS score is synonymous with the Base Score. The new nomenclature — CVSS-B for Base metrics, CVSS-BE for Base and Environmental metrics, CVSS-BT for Base and Threat metrics, and CVSS-BTE for the combination of all three — highlights the importance of considering all aspects of a vulnerability rather than just base metrics. This change aids in a more comprehensive vulnerability assessment by encouraging consideration of the environmental and threat-related aspects that affect severity.

Threat Metrics Overhaul for Simplification and Relevance

The transition from Temporal to Threat Metrics represents a significant overhaul. By retiring the Remediation Level and Report Confidence metrics and consolidating the Exploit Code Maturity values into a single “Attacked” value, CVSS v4.0 simplifies the metric group and enhances its relevance. This consolidation aims to provide a more straightforward approach to assessing threats, focusing on the actual exploitation of vulnerabilities rather than future exploit potential.

Enhanced User Interaction Metric for Detailed Exploit Context

The User Interaction (UI) metric in CVSS v4.0 now differentiates between Passive (requiring minimal or no user interaction) and Active (requiring deliberate action) user involvement. This distinction is crucial as it affects the likelihood of an exploit’s success. By offering a granular view of user interaction, organizations can better gauge the need for user education and awareness in preventing security breaches.

Retirement of the Scope Metric for Consistent Scoring

The retirement of the Scope (S) metric is a move made in order to eliminate inconsistencies that arose from its ambiguous nature. CVSS v4.0 replaces it with two distinct sets of impact metrics: one for the vulnerable system (VC, VI, VA) and one for subsequent systems (SC, SI, SA). This change ensures a clearer and more consistent assessment of the impact on both the directly vulnerable system and any affected collateral systems.

Additional Guidance for Cross-Sector Vulnerability Assessment

CVSS v4.0 extends beyond a one-size-fits-all approach by offering additional guidance in order to produce consistent scores across different industry sectors and supporting multiple scores for the same vulnerability when it affects various products, platforms, or operating systems. This is a forward-thinking move that acknowledges the complex and varied nature of the digital ecosystem.


The release of CVSS v4.0 is a significant advancement in the realm of vulnerability scoring. By providing clearer metrics, retiring ambiguous ones, and adding new layers of detail, CVSS v4.0 enhances both the accuracy and clarity of vulnerability assessments. Collective adoption of the CVSS v4.0 scoring system by the cybersecurity community will lead to improved vulnerability assessment and enhance remediation efforts in vulnerable systems. For more information on CVSS v4.0, refer to the official documentation on the First website.

How Can Netizen Help?

Netizen ensures that security gets built-in and not bolted-on. Providing advanced solutions to protect critical IT infrastructure such as the popular “CISO-as-a-Service” wherein companies can leverage the expertise of executive-level cybersecurity professionals without having to bear the cost of employing them full time. 

We also offer compliance support, vulnerability assessments, penetration testing, and more security-related services for businesses of any size and type. 

Additionally, Netizen offers an automated and affordable assessment tool that continuously scans systems, websites, applications, and networks to uncover issues. Vulnerability data is then securely analyzed and presented through an easy-to-interpret dashboard to yield actionable risk and compliance information for audiences ranging from IT professionals to executive managers.

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